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Gender & Women's Studies - Majors & Minors - Knox College
25 Oct Title: Knox Magazine Fall , Author: Knox College, Name: Knox Magazine Fall , Length: 84 pages, Page: 1, Published: We live in a nation characterized by historically high levels of segregation by income, race, and ethnicity and increasingly polarized by political perspective. college. According to most college financial aid policies, John's parents were financially able to pay at least part of his tuition, so. John did not qualify for any For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) applicants in their teenage years who on the basis of race, color, national or ethnic origin, age, religion. What kinds of biases have shaped our understanding of biological "facts," literary "value" and historical "importance"? HSS; DV; Staff;. GWST Theory in . Possible course topics include: literature as a gendered institution; sexuality and the state; education; gay/lesbian literature; gender and race. HUM; Prerequisite(s ).
Despite strong indications of elevated risk of suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, limited attention has been given to research, interventions or suicide prevention programs targeting these populations. This article is a culmination of a three-year effort by an expert panel to address the need for better understanding of suicidal behavior and suicide risk in sexual minority populations, and stimulate the development of needed prevention strategies, interventions and policy changes.
This article summarizes existing research findings, and makes recommendations for addressing knowledge gaps and applying current knowledge to relevant areas of suicide prevention practice. Relatively little attention has been given to the problem of suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT populations, despite reports of elevated risk for over four decades.
National Strategy for Suicide Prevention U. The two dozen invited participants, including suicide and mental health researchers, clinicians, educators, and policy advocates, discussed findings from relevant research and their implications for reducing suicidal behavior in the target populations, and made recommendations to address knowledge gaps. Additional studies have been reported since the conference, further expanding our knowledge base.
Increased national as well as international attention has also been given to the need to use our extant knowledge to reduce risks and prevent suicidal behavior in LGBT populations. This article was developed by the conference participants to review the findings from relevant research, identify knowledge gaps, and stimulate the development of strategies, interventions, and policy changes to reduce suicidal behavior and suicide risk among LGBT people.
It seeks specifically to:. Sexual minorities are defined with reference to two distinct and complex characteristics: Sexual orientation is generally defined as having at least three dimensions: Click of the prevalence of gay, lesbian, and bisexual people in the United States vary according to how they are defined Pathelal et al.
Link from the third wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health Add Healthcollected in —, similarly found that 3. One early representative survey of U. Increasingly sophisticated methods are being used to determine the prevalence of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people in the U.
There is limited understanding of which dimensions of sexual orientation are most meaningfully related to suicidal behavior. Those who indicated same-sex attraction or behavior but identified as heterosexual, however, did not report link higher rate of suicide attempt than heterosexual youth without same-sex behavior or attraction.
Data from a large national survey of U. Continue reading contrast to sexual orientation, gender identity refers to a person's internal sense of being masculine, feminine, or androgynous. Rather than a binary concept, gender identity includes gradations of masculinity to femininity and maleness to femaleness, as well as identification as neither essentially male nor female Fausto-Sterling, For varying reasons that include cost and lack of access to appropriate health care services, an unknown proportion of transgender people do not elect to obtain surgery or hormonal therapies.
Inconsistent definitions contribute to the lack of clarity in our knowledge about the prevalence of transgender people, and particularly transgender youth, in the population. To date, no general population-based survey of the adolescent or adult U. In the United States, 1 in 30, assigned males and 1 inassigned females are estimated to seek gender reassignment surgery at some point in their lifetime American Psychiatric Association, The Amsterdam Gender Dysphoria Clinic, which has collected data on the Dutch transsexual population for more than four decades, has estimated the prevalence to be substantially higher at 1 in 10, assigned males and 1: Either set of figures is certainly an underestimate of the broadly defined transgender population.
One large internet survey found that 0.
These friendships have truly enhanced my understanding of the world. Several nonrandom studies have found an association between parental rejection because of sexual orientation and higher risk of suicide attempts among LGB youth D'Augelli, Grossman, Salter, et al. Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual http://hookupex.date/ni/is-exclusive-hookup-the-same-as-a-relationship.php in the National Comorbidity Survey.
Sexual orientation varies among transgender individuals, just as it does among people who perceive their gender identity to be aligned with their biological sex. In this article, we focus first on summarizing the accumulated research literature on suicidal behavior and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Next, we summarize the far more limited findings from comparable research among transgender people. Consistent with widespread usage in the research literature, we Knox College Gay Statistics By Race use the click here LGB lesbian, gay, bisexual and LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender while recognizing that they do not adequately reflect the heterogeneity of self-identifications or behaviors within these populations.
Because death records do not routinely include the deceased person's sexual orientation, there is no official or generally reliable way to determine rates of completed suicide in LGB people. Each of these studies has concluded that same-sex sexual orientation is not disproportionately represented among suicide victims. Recent studies have used Denmark's extensive registries of vital statistics and other sociodemographic data to examine whether people in same-sex registered domestic partnerships a proxy indicator of sexual orientation were overrepresented among suicide decedents.
The Danish data can be matched fairly easily because individual information recorded in the various registries uses unique identification numbers assigned to citizens at birth. Men who were currently or formerly in same-sex domestic partnerships were eight times more likely to die by suicide compared to men with histories of heterosexual marriage, and almost twice as likely as men who had never married.
Although small numbers of cases limited the precision of the analyses, same-sex partnered men appeared to have an elevated risk of suicide across the lifespan. Women in current or former same-sex domestic partnerships did not show significantly higher risk of suicide mortality compared to hetero-sexually married or never-married women.
Just click for source limitation of the approach used in the Danish studies is that it captures suicide deaths only among partnered and officially registered LGB people.
Further, opportunities for replication in other countries have been limited, but these may expand as more as more countries and U. An year follow-up study of the mortality status of Knox College Gay Statistics By Race 5, U. Findings from this study, in stark contradiction to the Danish registry studies, suggest that suicide mortality may not be elevated among U.
The authors cautioned, however, that the number of men who reported same-sex sexual behavior in this survey was quite small, and that elevated risk of suicide mortality among U. In contrast to the data on death by suicide, a relationship between sexual orientation and nonfatal suicidal behavior has been observed worldwide Mathy, a. Click here in the United States and abroad provide strong evidence of elevated rates of reported suicide attempts among LGB individuals.
From a scientific perspective, these methods yield the best estimate of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and associated risk factors in groups, without the biases that can occur in convenience or other nonrepresentative samples. Since the early s, population-based surveys of U. Gender-specific analyses have found sexual orientation to be a stronger independent predictor of suicide attempts in young males than in young females Garofalo et al.
Health-related surveys of U.
Gay and Lesbian Medical Association; April. Are Western accounts of human psychology valid cross-culturally? A promising, empirically based approach for treating depressed and suicidal adolescents, Attachment-Based Family Therapy G. Using gender as a category of analysis, and with attention to the distribution of power in society, we explore such questions as: Virginia Department of Health;
A similar finding emerged from the population-based Vietnam Era Twin Registry, consisting of 4, male-male identical or fraternal twin pairs born between and Herrell et al. This study found that middle-aged men who reported any male sex partners after age 18 were six times more likely to have made a lifetime suicide attempt than were their male twins who reported only opposite-sex sexual behavior.
Overall, Knox College Gay Statistics By Race adolescents and adults were also more than twice as likely as comparable heterosexual persons to report a suicide attempt in more info past 12 months. Many of the studies that have investigated suicide attempts in LGB groups have also measured suicidal ideation, with combined results showing LGB respondents to be twice as likely as comparable heterosexual respondents to report suicidal ideation King et al.
Thus, reported suicidal ideation does not appear to be a stable predictor of LGB suicidal behavior. In most Western countries, suicide attempts occur more frequently among adolescents and young adults Goldsmith et al.
Further, surveys have identified few LGB participants over the age of There is some evidence that suicide attempts may be more closely linked to the ages at which lesbian women Hughes, and gay men Paul et al. The Danish registry data Mathy, Cochran, et al. One study reported suicide attempt rates in LGB adolescents to be especially high among African-American males Remafedi, In the population as a whole, mental disorders constitute the single largest risk factor for suicidal behavior, and studies have also reported a generally strong association between mental disorders and suicide attempts in LGB adolescents and adults.
In the New Zealand birth cohort study Fergusson et al. They found that elevated rates of reported suicide attempts in youth who identified as LGB were associated with significantly higher rates of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and conduct disorder than were observed among heterosexual youth.
Http://hookupex.date/ni/what-does-a-hookup-coach-do.php youth were also six times more likely to have multiple disorders.
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Follow-up of the cohort during their mids Fergusson et al. Elevated rates of mental disorders, including substance use Knox College Gay Statistics By Race, have also been reported in one-quarter to one-third of LGB adult respondents in large-scale health surveys that have defined click here orientation based on self-identity Bostwick et al.
Combining results from 25 international adolescent and adult studies, researchers found depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders to be 1. In the latest wave of this survey, occurring in —, almost 35, nationally representative Americans completed an extensive in-person interview that included separate questions on sexual identity, behavior and attraction. A recent analysis of these data Bostwick et al. Men who reported same-sex sexual behavior or attraction reported a higher prevalence of most mood and anxiety disorders.
Among women, however, those who reported only female sexual partners had a lower prevalence of every disorder examined compared to women who reported only male or Knox College Gay Statistics By Race male and female sexual partners, or who were not sexually active. Similarly, women who reported sexual attraction to only females had the lowest rates of most mood and anxiety disorders compared with other attraction-defined groups only male, mostly male, both male and female, and mostly female.
Confirming findings of an earlier large-scale Australian survey Jorm et al. Similar to men who identified as gay or bisexual, men who reported being unsure about their sexual identity were significantly more likely to have mood or anxiety disorders than heterosexual men.
In women with unsure sexual identity, however, rates of these disorders were generally not significantly higher than among heterosexual women. The findings of this study point to the complexity of defining sexual orientation, especially in women, and illuminate differences among female subgroups that past surveys have subsumed within a single female category. Most studies have shown an association between mental disorders and suicide attempts in LGB respondents who report suicidal behavior.
Mental disorders, however, do continue reading appear to entirely explain elevated rates of suicide attempts in these individuals. Relative to comparable heterosexual respondents, suicide attempt rates ranged between just over twice as likely among lesbian women to more than three times more likely among bisexual men.
This finding is consistent with reports from studies of U. There is ample evidence that across the lifespan, LGB people commonly experience discrimination in the form of personal rejection, hostility, harassment, bullying, and physical violence.
Director of "Dear White People" Talks His Movie, Race, And Being Gay + Black In America
One especially powerful stressor for LGB youth is rejection by parents and other family members. Several nonrandom studies have found an association between parental rejection because of sexual orientation and higher risk of suicide attempts among LGB youth D'Augelli, Grossman, Salter, et al.
Young Latino gay and bisexual men reported the highest number of rejecting behaviors and were more likely than Latina females or White respondents to report suicide attempts. A nationally representative U. Analyses of data from large public health surveys of U.
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Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions — further documented the association between personal experiences of discrimination and interpersonal violence on elevated rates of substance use disorders McCabe, Bostwick, et al. There is some evidence that the interrelationship among gay-related stressors, mental disorders and suicidal behavior may vary between different racial and ethnic groups.
Black and especially Latino individuals, however, reported significantly higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts than did Knox College Gay Statistics By Race, with most attempts occurring before the age of A key hypothesis emerging from the study, which is currently being tested, is that suicide risk among Black and Latino LGB people is more strongly related more info major stressful events associated with coming out, such as assault, abuse and homelessness, than to depression and other mental disorders.
Institutional discrimination results from laws and public policies that create inequities or fail to provide protections against sexual orientation-based discrimination. Using the NESARC data, Hatzenbuehler, Keyes, and Hasin found that LGB adults who lived in one of 19 states that lacked specific protections against sexual orientation-based hate crimes or employment discrimination had significantly higher prevalence of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, compared to heterosexual adults living in those states and LGB adults living in states that extended protection in at least one of these areas.
LGB respondents in states without protective policies were almost five times more likely than those in other states to have two or more mental disorders. A subsequent study Hatzenbuehler et al. Such amendments gained impetus following the passage of the Federal Defense of Marriage Act or DOMA, which affirmed that states are not required to treat a relationship between persons of the same sex as a marriage, even if the relationship is considered a marriage in another state.
Using the NESARC data from 16 states that enacted constitutional amendments against same-sex marriage during andthe researchers found significant increases in mental disorders among self-identified LGB respondents in these states between wave 1 — and wave 2 — of the survey.
By contrast, no comparable increases in mental disorders between the two waves of the survey were observed in heterosexual respondents living in these 16 states. Noting that the constitutional amendments largely underscored preexisting state laws, the researchers hypothesized that the negative mental health impact on LGB citizens stemmed primarily from the hostile political campaigns and public discourse that preceded their passage, which further promulgated stigma and reinforced the marginalized social and legal status of LGB click at this page. Among LGB respondents living in the 34 states where constitutional amendments against same-sex marriage were not enacted during the period examined, increases in generalized anxiety disorder Knox College Gay Statistics By Race substance use disorders were also found between the two waves of the survey, possibly related to extensive national media coverage of the amendment campaigns and the associated anti-gay rhetoric.